Essentials of Blood Banking: A Handbook for Students of Blood Banking and Clinical Residents
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This new edition of Essentials of Blood Banking brings students and residents fully up to date with the latest scientific and technological advances in blood banking and transfusion. The book begins with discussion on immunohaematology and different blood group systems. The following sections examine transfusion, screening, donors and storage. The second edition includes a new chapter on obstetrical transfusion practice, as well as fully updated guidelines on neonatal and paediatric transfusion. Key points * Fully revised, new edition bringing residents and students up to date with the latest advances in blood banking and transfusion * Includes new chapter on obstetrical transfusion practice * Diagrams, plates and tables enhance learning * Previous edition published in 2006
Add 1 drop of patient’s own cell suspension in tube 12 and 1 drop each of cord cell suspension in tube 13 and 14. 4. Mix gently and incubate at RT for 1 hour. 5. Shake the tubes and dislodge the button. 6. Haemolysis at this stage must be considered positive test. 7. Examine all negative results microscopically. 8. Score and record the result on the antigram chart provided with the panel. Enzyme phase 1. Add 1 drop of enzyme papain in each tube just after the step 2 of saline test. 2.
changes which take place in RBC are: • RBC changes its shape from discoid to spherical • Osmotic fragility is increased • There is loss of red cell membrane lipids. WBC The wbc become nonfunctional after 24 hours of storage, but they retain their antigenic properties and are quite capable of causing non-haemolytic febrile transfusion reactions in the recipients. Platelets The platelets stored at 4-6°C lose their haemostatic properties within 48 hours. Coagulation factors The coagulation
ml/kg of body wt is given to keep the PTT/aPTT and PT ratios at less than 1:5 times of normal • Cryoprecipitate is the appropriate choice for hypofibrinogenaemia. Massive transfusion Massive blood loss may be defined as the loss of 1 blood volume within a 24-hour period. Normal blood volume in the adult is taken as approximately 7% of ideal body weight. Other definitions include 50% blood volume loss within 3 hours or a rate of loss of 150 ml/minute. Postpartum hemorrhage and ectopic
patient must be collected. • Patient’s age • Diagnosis • Transfusion history • Medications • Immune status • H/O pregnancy. The common sources of error resulting in ABO discrepancies are listed below. • Misidentification of blood samples or test tubes. • Cell suspension either too heavy or too light. • Failure to add reagent. • A mix-up in samples. • Clerical errors. • Inaccurate centrifuge. • Contaminated reagents. • Failure to follow manufacturer’s instructions. Group I
Essentials of blood banking Tests for Rh grouping In most of the blood banks the routine typing for Rh is carried out for D antigen only. The tests for other Rh antigens are recommended in specific conditions, such as finding compatible blood for a person showing an alloantibody in his serum or for paternity testing. Techniques The Rh testing is routinely done by saline method only, but at times, the potentiaters like albumin or enzyme (papain) or AHG serum may be required. There are mainly two